Bezpečnosť:

Riziká ohrozenia laserových tried:
Trieda 1 – Bezpečné z dôvodu nízkej intenzity žiarenia alebo bezpečného uloženia v kryte.
Trieda 2 – Bezpečné pri náhodnom, neúmyselnom ožiarení spôsobenom prirodzeným reflexom. Platí pre viditeľné lasery.
Trieda 1M, 2M – riziko ohrozenia podľa laserovej triedy 1 alebo 2, keď laserový lúč nie je pozorovaný cez optické nástroje (lupa, ďalekohľad…). Bežné okuliare sa pritom nepovažujú za optický nástroj.
Trieda 3R – Potenciálne nebezpečné pre oči, sú potrebné znížené ochranné opatrenia.
Trieda 3B – Nebezpečné pre oči, sú potrebné ochranné opatrenia.
Trieda 4 – Nebezpečné pre pokožku a oči, nebezpečný priamy a difúzne rozptýlený lúč, nebezpečenstvo požiaru (laser funguje ako zápalný zdroj).

„M“ znamená „Magnifying“ (zväčšenie, zosilnenie) a poukazuje na to, že tieto laserové zariadenia môžu byť na rozdiel od laserov triedy 1 alebo triedy 2 nebezpečné pri použití optických prístrojov (lupa, mikroskop, ďalekohľad). „R“ znamená „Relaxiert“ (zmiernené opatrenia) a poukazuje na to, že pre tieto laserové zariadenia sú stanovené menej prísne opatrenia ako pre inú kategóriu laserov triedy 3 B. V medzinárodnom ponímaní sa pri triedach 3 B a 4 (aj v prípade laserových zdrojov uložených v kryte) odporúča povolať osobu poverenú ochranou proti laseru (OPOL). ON S 1100 odporúča povolať osobu poverenú ochranou proti laseru od triedy 3 R.

Do pozornosti je vhoné uviesť:

329/2006 Z. z. Nariadenie o ochrane zamestnancov pred rizikami s elektromagnetickým poľom
339/2006 Z. z. Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky, ktorým sa ustanovujú podrobnosti o prípustných hodnotách hluku, infrazvuku a vibrácií a o požiadavkách na objektivizáciu hluku, infrazvuku a vibrácií
345/2006 Z. z. Nariadenie o ochrane zdravia pracovníkov a obyvateľov pred ionizujúcim žiarením351/2006 Z. z. Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky o podrobnostiach o ochrane zdravia pred účinkami optického žiarenia pri práci
351/2006 Z. z. Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky o podrobnostiach o ochrane zdravia pred účinkami optického žiarenia pri práci

ZÁKON o ochrane, podpore a rozvoji verejného zdravia a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov
úplné znenie zákona č. 355/2007 Z. z. o ochrane, podpore a rozvoji verejného zdravia a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov v znení zákona č. 140/2008 Z. z., zákona č. 461/2008 Z. z., zákona č. 540/2008 Z. z., zákona č. 170/2009 Z. z., zákona č. 67/2010 Z. z., zákona č. 132/2010 Z. z., zákona č. 136/2010 Z. z., zákona č. 172/2011 Z. z., zákona č. 470/2011 Z. z., zákona č. 306/2012 Z. z., zákona č. 74/2013 Z. z., zákona č. 153/2013 Z. z., zákona č. 204/2014 Z. z. a zákona č. 77/2015 Z. z.



BEZPEČNOSTNÉ PREDPISY PRE PRÁCU S LASERMI

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IEC 60825-1     

Laser Safety Facts        


Každé laserové zariadenie triedy 4 musí byť opatrené výstražným štítkom a informačným štítkom s nápisom:
LASEROVÉ ŽIARENIE
NEVYSTAVUJTE OČI ANI POKOŽKU PRIAMEMU ANI rozptýlenému ŽIARENIU
Laserový produkt triedy 4
NEVYSTAVUJTE SA OŽIARENIA - Apertura vyžarujú LASEROVÉ ŽIARENIE

NÁLEŽITOSTI PREVÁDZKOVÉHO PORIADKU

Laser safety experts - http://www.laser-info.scare.sk/default.htm

Revised system

Warning label for class 2 and higher

Below, the main characteristics and requirements for the classification system as specified by the IEC 60825-1 standard are listed, along with typical required warning labels. Additionally, classes 2 and higher must have the triangular warning label shown here and other labels are required in specific cases indicating laser emission, laser apertures, skin hazards, and invisible wavelengths. For classes I to IV, see the section old system further below.

Class 1

CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT

A Class 1 laser is safe under all conditions of normal use. This means the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) cannot be exceeded when viewing a laser with the naked eye or with the aid of typical magnifying optics (e.g. telescope or microscope). To verify compliance, the standard specifies the aperture and distance corresponding to the naked eye, a typical telescope viewing a collimated beam, and a typical microscope viewing a divergent beam. It is important to realize that certain lasers classified as Class 1 may still pose a hazard when viewed with a telescope or microscope of sufficiently large aperture. For example, a high-power laser with a very large collimated beam or very highly divergent beam may be classified as Class 1 if the power that passes through the apertures defined in the standard is less than the AEL for Class 1; however, an unsafe power level may be collected by a magnifying optic with larger aperture.

Class 1M

LASER RADIATION
DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY WITH OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
CLASS 1M LASER PRODUCT

A Class 1M laser is safe for all conditions of use except when passed through magnifying optics such as microscopes and telescopes. Class 1M lasers produce large-diameter beams, or beams that are divergent. The MPE for a Class 1M laser cannot normally be exceeded unless focusing or imaging optics are used to narrow the beam. If the beam is refocused, the hazard of Class 1M lasers may be increased and the product class may be changed. A laser can be classified as Class 1M if the power that can pass through the pupil of the naked eye is less than the AEL for Class 1, but the power that can be collected into the eye by typical magnifying optics (as defined in the standard) is higher than the AEL for Class 1 and lower than the AEL for Class 3B.

Class 2

LASER RADIATION
DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM
CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT

A Class 2 laser is considered to be safe because the blink reflex (glare aversion response to bright lights) will limit the exposure to no more than 0.25 seconds. It only applies to visible-light lasers (400–700 nm). Class-2 lasers are limited to 1 mW continuous wave, or more if the emission time is less than 0.25 seconds or if the light is not spatially coherent. Intentional suppression of the blink reflex could lead to eye injury. Some laser pointers and measuring instruments are class 2.

Class 2M

LASER RADIATION
DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM OR VIEW
DIRECTLY WITH OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
CLASS 2M LASER PRODUCT

A Class 2M laser is safe because of the blink reflex if not viewed through optical instruments. As with class 1M, this applies to laser beams with a large diameter or large divergence, for which the amount of light passing through the pupil cannot exceed the limits for class 2.

Class 3A

LASER RADIATION
AVOID DIRECT EYE EXPOSURE
CLASS 3R LASER PRODUCT

A Class 3A laser is considered safe if handled carefully, with restricted beam viewing. With a class 3R laser, the MPE can be exceeded, but with a low risk of injury. Visible continuous lasers in Class 3R are limited to 5 mW. For other wavelengths and for pulsed lasers, other limits apply.

Class 3B

LASER RADIATION
AVOID EXPOSURE TO BEAM
CLASS 3B LASER PRODUCT

A Class 3B laser is hazardous if the eye is exposed directly, but diffuse reflections such as those from paper or other matte surfaces are not harmful. The AEL for continuous lasers in the wavelength range from 315 nm to far infrared is 0.5 W. For pulsed lasers between 400 and 700 nm, the limit is 30 mJ. Other limits apply to other wavelengths and to ultrashort pulsed lasers. Protective eyewear is typically required where direct viewing of a class 3B laser beam may occur. Class-3B lasers must be equipped with a key switch and a safety interlock. Class 3B lasers are used inside CD and DVD writers, although the writer unit itself is class 1 because the laser light cannot leave the unit.

Class 4

LASER RADIATION
AVOID EYE OR SKIN EXPOSURE TO
DIRECT OR SCATTERED RADIATION
CLASS 4 LASER PRODUCT

Class 4 is the highest and most dangerous class of laser, including all lasers that exceed the Class 3B AEL. By definition, a class 4 laser can burn the skin, or cause devastating and permanent eye damage as a result of direct, diffuse or indirect beam viewing. These lasers may ignite combustible materials, and thus may represent a fire risk. These hazards may also apply to indirect or non-specular reflections of the beam, even from apparently matte surfaces – meaning that great care must be taken to control the beam path. Class 4 lasers must be equipped with a key switch and a safety interlock. Most industrial, scientific, military, and medical lasers are in this category. Medical lasers can have divergent emissions and require awareness of nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) and nominal ocular hazard area (NOHA).

        

A bird scarer is any of a number devices designed to scare birds, usually employed by farmers to dissuade birds from eating recently planted arable crops. They are also used on airfields to prevent birds accumulating near runways and causing a potential hazard to aircraft.